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Energy gives us the ability to do all kinds of things such as; write, walk, read and cook. There are eight different energies sorted into two groups which are Working Energy and Stored Energy. Below are different types of Working Energy:

  • Kinetic Energy

  • Light Energy

  • Heat Energy

  • Sound Energy

  • Electrical Energy

Here is the list of Stored Energy:

  • Chemical Energy

  • Potential Energy

  • Nuclear Energy

Potential Energy – An object has potential energy depending on its position and condition, for example:

  • A ball has potential energy when it balances on top of another ball because of its position.

  • A rubber band has potential energy when it is stretched because of its condition.

Heat Energy – Heat energy heats an object, with a cooler temperature, making it hot. Here are some examples of situations when objects release heat energy:

  • A pot filled with water is placed on a gas stove which had been turned on. The fire on the gas stove releases heat energy making the water in the pot boil after a few minutes.

  • When we rub our hands rapidly, heat energy will be released during this process, making our hands hot.

Heat Energy sometimes comes with light energy.

Light Energy – Light energy is released by things that give out light. Without light energy, we will not be able to see our surroundings. Examples of situations that give out light energy are listed below:

  • By turning on a torch, light energy will be released, allowing us to see around us.

  • If you light up a fire, light energy is released together with heat energy.

Electrical Energy – Electrical energy is the energy used to work an electrical circuit, for example:

  • When two pieces of wires are connected to a bulb and a battery, the battery will release electrical energy which would flow through the wires lighting up the bulb.

Kinetic Energy – Kinetic energy is the energy absorbed by moving objects. For example:

  • If we roll a ball across the floor, the ball will absorb kinetic energy as it goes.

  • A car moving down a hill absorbs kinetic energy as it goes down

When an object moves faster, more kinetic energy will be absorbed into the object. Here are some examples:

  • Two balls with the same size and weight were pushed. One ball was rolling faster than the other. The fast rolling ball absorbs more kinetic energy than the ball with a slower speed.

  • Two leaves were blown in the wind. Both leaves are at the same shape and size. One of it was floating faster than the other leaf. The leaf that was flying faster absorbs more kinetic energy.

When two things, with different sizes move together at the same speed, the larger object will absorb more kinetic energy. Below are some examples:

  • Two toy cars with different sizes were pushed across a table at the same time and speed. The larger car will absorb more kinetic energy than the smaller car.

  • When two different sized trolleys were pushed together at the same speed. The smaller trolley will absorb less kinetic energy than the larger trolley.

Sound Energy – Sound energy travels in a form of waves. Sound energy is released when a sound is made. Some examples are shown below:

  • When a piano is played, sound energy is released as music filled the air.

  • If you tap a table, tapping sound will be heard which means, sound energy is released every time the table is tapped.

When something vibrates, a sound is made and sound energy will be released for example,

  • If a piece of string is pulled tightly and plucked at the center, the string will vibrate making a sound. This shows that sound energy is released.

Chemical Energy – As a stored energy, Chemical energy are the energy that is stored inside something to be changed into other energies. The following list shows some examples of things that contains chemical energy:

  • Food contains chemical energy. For your body to move around, it uses the chemical energy from the food.

  • Batteries contain chemical energy. This stored energy will soon be used as electrical energy to work a circuit.

Nuclear Energy – Nuclear energy is released by elements like Uranium and Hydrogen. These element can release a lot of energy. Nuclear energy are released in many forms. One of the many forms is, Radioactive Rays. As air pollutants, Radioactive Rays may cause very serious illness.

Energies cannot be produced or destroyed. Therefore, energies can change from one state to another. Here are some examples:

  • A toaster oven – Electrical energy –> Heat energy + Light energy

  • An alarm clock – Chemical energy –> Kinetic energy + Sound energy

There are at least six sources of energy. The sources are listed below:

  • Solar

  • Wind

  • Wave

  • Biomass

  • Geothermal

  • Fossils

Solar – Solar panels are used to change heat to other energies for example, electrical energy.

Wind – Wind turbines are used to change kinetic energy to other energies.

Wave – Dams are usually used to change kinetic energy, from the waves, into electrical energy. Since hydro means water this type of electricity is also called as hydroelectricity.

Biomass – Biomass is the energy source from organic materials.

Geothermal – Geo is earth and Thermal means heat. Geothermal is the heat from deep inside the earth. Geothermal works by letting the steam from the heat turn a wind turbine in the factory.

Fossils – Fossils are made of the remains of dead plants and animal that died years ago. These energy sources are pressed under layers of soil for thousands of years.

These sources of energy are sorted into two groups called, Renewable Energy Sources and Non-Renewable Energy Sources. Renewable energy sources are sources of energy that can be renewed. Non-renewable sources of energy are energy sources that will be used up one day and cannot be renewed. Below are the lists of both categories.

Renewable Energy Sources:

  • Solar

  • Wind

  • Wave

  • Geothermal

  • Biomass

Non-Renewable Energy Sources

  • Fossils


   Cells are the smallest living unit in our body. We can only see it through a microscope.

   There are two types of cells, animal cells and plant cells. Both of them are made up of:

  • Cell membrane
  • Protoplasm (nucleus plus cytoplasm)

    Three additional parts are only available in plant cells. They are:

  • Cell wall
  • Vacuole
  • Chloroplast
(Please click this picture for a clearer image) This picture shows the parts of a plant cell (left) and a animal cell (right).

(Please click this picture for a clearer image) This picture shows the parts of a plant cell (left) and a animal cell (right).

   Their Physical Properties are:

Cell wall: Rigid and contains cellulose;

These are their Physical Properties

   The function of these parts are:

Cell Wall, Cell Membrane

The above image shows the functions of these parts

Below are the differences and similarities between both types of cells:

Differences of Animal Cells and Plant Cell

Unicellular organisms are living things that only have one cell. On the other hand, multicellular organisms have lots of cells. Here are some examples of unicellular and multicellular organisms:

Examples of Muticellular and Unicellular Organisms

(Please click\for a clearer image) Examples of Muticellular and Unicellular Organisms

Forming an organism

A tissue is a group of cell that does similar work. Each organs are made of different types of tissues. Some example of organs are:

  • Brain
  • Kidney
  • Lungs
  • Liver
  • Heart

Different organs with different functions work together to complete one system. Here are some examples of systems:

The table shows a few example of Systems with included organs

The table shows a few example of Systems with included organs

 And these systems form an organism by working together.

 The above explains how lots of cells share their work to form an multicellular organism and it is called the cell organisation. The chart below shows the cell organisation:

 However a unicellular organism has to do all of the work by itself. The cell does everything to keep the organism alive and healthy from respirating and digesting to excreting waste materials.

Please click here for my Science posts about…

   Recently, my family and I went to Pusat Sains Negara (National Science Center) to see the Dinosaurs Exibition.

On the way there.

   Over there, I saw all kinds of dinosaurs, for example T-RexStegosaurus and lots more. The dinosaurs swing their huge heads and tails from side to side. The big dinosaurs make  surprising loud noises and the cute small ones make cute little screechy sounds. There is one that makes a cute sound like Primiligh or her kittens.

   We had a great time there and I hope so will you if you visit the Pusat Sains Negara 🙂 It is a fun place to visit.

We went out and went to other places like Flight, Thinking Machine and Future World exhibitions

Food chain is used to show the food relationship between plants and other animals . A few food chain can construct  a food web.

For example:

  1. grass -> deer -> cobra -> tiger
  2. grass -> deer -> tiger
  3. grass -> grasshopper -> frog -> cobra -> tiger

From the above food chain transform to afood chain:

Food chain always start with green plants. The piramid of numbers shows the number of producer and consumers.

A producer is a green plant because green plant can make their own food and the process is called photosynthesis.

Consumers are animals that consume other animals and plants.There are three consumers and they are:

  1. Primary consumer – herbivore or omnivore
  2. Secondary consumer – carnivore or omnivore
  3. Tertiary consumer – carnivore or omnivore


  • Herbivores are animals that eat only plants.
  • Carnivores are animals that eat only other animals.
  • Omnivores are animals that eat other animals and plants.

If you would like to read about Microorganisms, please click here.

Animals need to reproduce to prevent their species from extinction. Animals reproduce by laying eggs or giving birth. Different animals have their own ways to ensure the survival of their species.

Animals that give birth to their young nurture and care for their babies. Their mothers suckle their young and have their own ways to protect their young from danger.

  • Cow – Protect it’s young with its horn
  • Cat – Fight attackers with its claws and move their kittens to a safer place if the kittens are disturbed.
  • Kangaroo – Carries its  young in its pouch wherever it goes.
  • Zebra, elephant and giraffe – stays in group for a better defense
  • Whale and dolphin – Stays close to its calves
  • Leopard – Attacks its enemies with sharp teeth and claws

Not all animals that lay eggs take care of their eggs and young. This is what a typical bird will do to ensure the safety of its eggs and young:

  1. Build a good nest in a safe spot
  2. Incubate their eggs after they lay them
  3. Feed their young when they hatch
  4. Protect their young from predators

These are some animals that lay eggs and how they ensure the survival of their eggs and young.

  • Turtle – Lays hundreds of eggs at  night and buries them in the sand. Their eggs are protected by soft shells or skin
  • Spider – Lays egg in a silk cocoon and carries the silk cocoon everywhere it goes
  • Snake – Coils round the eggs and attacks animals that come close to the eggs
  • Sea horse – The male sea horse use its pouch to store the eggs and looks after them until they hatch. It will protect the young until they can fend for themselves.
  • Siamese fighting fish – The male fish catches the eggs in its mouth and drops them into a bubble nest that it has built. It also guards the nest and protects the babies.
  • Crocodile – Lays eggs in the sand and stays nearby to guard the eggs. When the eggs hatch, it carries the baby crocodiles in the mouth to the river.
  • Butterfly – Lays eggs on the underside of leaves.
  • Frog – Lays large numbers of eggs with slimy and smelly coverings  in the water. The covering  prevents and discourages other animals from eating the eggs. The covering will be eaten by the tadpoles when they come out of the eggs.
  • Fish – Lays lots of eggs close to water plants to hide them. Some fish keep their young in their mouth.
  • Grasshoppers – Lays eggs in the soil.
  • Snail – Lays about 60 – 100 eggs at night and buries them under stones.
  • Scorpion – Carries its young on its back
  • Cockroach – Lays egg protected by hard coverings and hides them in dark places.
  • Housefly – Lays up to 500 eggs and hides them under rubbish or faeces.

Laying eggs on the underside of leaves or near rocks and waterplants helps to protect the eggs from being eaten. Laying lots of eggs ensure that some of the eggs have the chance to grow up into adult animals.

Please click here if you want to read about Microorganisms.

Part (1) here: (click)

If the seed/fruit disperse by water the fruit will fall off the tree and float on water.

The characteristics of these type of fruit are:

  • Have a hard shell
  • Able to float in the water
  • Have water proof husk

A coconut is an example of seed/fruit that disperse by water

There are more ways how seeds disperse.

Microorganism are tiny living things. Micro means tiny and organism means living things. There are four types of microorganism with different sizes.



There are:

  1. Fungi – biggest
  2. Protozoa
  3. Bacteria
  4. Virus – smallest

They can breathe and move. Aquatic microorganism move by whisking their tails rapidly in water.


These are the example of diseases caused by microorganism:

The table shows different diseases caused by microorganisms (Please click to see a clearer picture)

Plant disperse their seed and fruit by scattering them far away from the parent plants. The advantages of dispersal:

  • reduce overcrowding
  • reduce competition between the parent plant and the young plant
  • enables seed to grow healthily
  • provides opportunities  to spread the species to new places

Some plants disperse their fruit that contain seeds while others disperse the seeds themselves. The seeds and fruits of plants have special  characteristics which help the agent to disperse them. Seeds and fruits can be disperse by:

  • Water

  • Example of fruit/seed dispersed by water: Coconut

  • Wind

  • Example of seed/fruit dispered by wind: Daisy 'Vittadinia sulcata'

  • Animals

  • Example of fruit/seed dispersed by animal: Strawberry (Isn't it cute?)

  • An explosive mechanism

  • Example of fruit/seed dispersed by an explosive mechanism: Okra

Cats are really fun, full of surprises and laughter,

I hope that they would have me as their friend until forever,

And when the rain comes pouring down, splashing on the kitties,

I wish they would run and play in between my knees,

Kittens are so sweet especially when they have fun together,

They play ‘chase’ and even try to tag one another,

But when it is time to pray or time to go to bed,

Their mama’s friend shall ‘meow’ to them and off they go to bed.

This poem is  written by my big sister, Kaman.

There are a lot of cats living in my neighbourhood. Most of them are kittens.

The kittens‘ names are:

  1. Khanillia/Little White
  2. Whitey
  3. Blacktail
  4. Choty/Erythia
  5. Blighty
  6. Miscowty
  7. Gingerbread Kitty
  8. Black Paint

And the cats‘ names are:

  1. Blackwie
  2. Tiny
  3. White Socks/Michael Jackson The Cat/Teddy Bear
  4. Misbroncat
  5. The Other Teddy Bear
  6. Tigre
  7. Mocha
  8. Kitty Coloured
  9. Snowbell
  10. Cute Princess

I like to play with Khanillia because it is not afraid of me at all. Its mother is Blackwie. Blackwie has a friend named White Socks. I knew Blackwie, Tiny and Cute Princess since three years ago when they were still newborn kittens. They are the kittens of Kitty Coloured.

Whenever Erythia comes, it won’t stop meowing. Khanillia is afraid of Erythia even though Khanillia is bigger than Erythia. Whitey once climbed up the window at the back of my house. White Socks meows (calls) to Blackwie’s kittens (Khanillia, Whitey and Blacktail) when it is time to pray.

Please click here for the updated version.

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